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On June 13,1966: Miranda rights were established. Also known as the Miranda warning, the Supreme Court’s decision in Miranda v. Arizona established the principle that every person taken into police custody must be informed of their Fifth Amendment rights against self-incrimination before questioning, and Sixth Amendment rights to legal counsel in federal prosecutions and state felony cases. Now a police procedural standard and well-known by its appearance in legal dramas, it includes the following sentences with hundreds of variations by jurisdiction:

1. You have the right to remain silent.
2. Anything you say can, and will, be used against you in a court of law.
3. You have the right to an attorney.
4. If you cannot afford one, one will be appointed to you.
The landmark case involved Ernesto Miranda, who was selected from a lineup by a woman who accused him of kidnapping and rape in 1963. He was interrogated for two hours by police until he confessed, without informing him of his constitutional rights. His statements were used as evidence by Arizona state court prosecutors and he was sentenced to 20 to 30 years in prison. Miranda’s attorney appealed to the Arizona Appeals Court which upheld the conviction, and eventually was agreed to be heard by the Supreme Court. The decision established the role of police in informing every person taken into custody of their rights.
It has been estimated that 80% of people taken into custody waive their rights and submit to questioning.

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